Books and Book Chapters

The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma: Why Election Observation Became an International Norm, 2011 from Cornell University Press Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma

Election Fraud: Detecting and Deterring Electoral Manipulation, Edited with R. Michael Alvarez and Thad E. Hall. 2008. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. This book includes my chapter, "How International Observers Detect and Deter Election Fraud" as Chapter 12.

Election Fraud
"International Dimensions of Elections" in Dynamics of Democratization,
Edited by Nathan Brown. 2011. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

"Why Believe International Election Monitors?" in Credibility and Non-Governmental Organizations in a Globalizing World: When Virtue is Not Enough, edited by Peter Gourevitch, David A. Lake, and Janice Gross Stein. Cambridge University Press.

Published or Forthcoming Articles

Hands "Information and Self-Enforcing Democracy: The Role of International Election Observation" (with Nikolay Marinov) 2014, International Organization. 68:2, pp. 329-359.
          Ungated Link to Paper (copyright Cambridge University Press)
          Replication Data Archive

"When Do Goverments Resort to Election Violence?" (with Emilie M. Hafner-Burton and Ryan S. Jablonski). 2014, British Journal of Political Science. 44: 1, pp 149-179.

"Which Elections Can Be Lost?" (with Nikolay Marinov) 2012, Political Analysis. 20,2: 191-210.

"Catch Us if You Can: Election Monitoring and International Norm Creation" 2011, American Journal of Political Science. Volume 55, Issue 2.
            Replication Data in Stata format (zipped)

"International Scrutiny and Pre-Electoral Fiscal Manipulation" (with Angela O'Mahony). Vol. 72, no. 3, July 2010, pp. 1-14. Journal of Politics.
          Online Appendix
          Variable Descriptions
          Stata 11 Replication Code
          Replication Dataset (Stata 11)

"Experimenting with Democracy Promotion: International Observers and the 2004 Presidential Elections in Indonesia." 2010. Perspectives on Politics.
            Online Appendix

"The Future of Field Experiments in International Relations" 2010. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.

"The Observer Effect in International Politics: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," 2007. World Politics.

"In the Shadow of Democracy Promotion: Strategic Manipulation, International Observers, and Election Boycotts" (with Emily Beaulieu), March 2009 in Comparative Political Studies.
            Ungated Version
            Supplementary Materials
            Replication Data in Stata format



National Elections Across Democracy and Autocracy


Selected Papers

bus "Evaluating Experimental Data: Comparing Techniques (with Thad Dunning)"
"Surviving Elections: Election Violence on Leader Tenure." (with Emilie Hafner-Burton and Ryan Jablonski)
Papers also available on the Political Science Network at SSRN



Observing Norms: Explaining the Causes and Consequences of Internationally Monitored Elections.
University of California, San Diego: PhD Dissertation. Completed June 2006. Voting